History Tuesday/Toothbrushes

-Toothbrush_

Welcome to history Tuesday and this week I am going to talk a little about the history of the toothbrush. The earliest identified use of the word toothbrush in English was in the autobiography of Anthony Wood (whoever he was) who wrote that in 1690 he bought a toothbrush for J Barret.

Apparently way back in 3500 BC the Babylonians and Egyptians are supposed to have made a form of toothbrush by fraying the end of a twig and in tombs these toothsticks have been found alongside the dead.

Around 1600BC, the Chinese developed “chewing sticks” which were made from aromatic tree twigs to freshen breath.

Horsehair Napoleon’s_toothbrush,_c_1795._

The Greeks and Romans used toothpicks to clean their teeth and toothpick-like twigs have been excavated in Quin Dynasty tombs. The chew sticks remain common in Africa and the rural Southern United States- and in the Islamic world the use of chewing stick Miswak is considered a pious action, and has been prescribed to be used before every prayer five times a day Miswak has been used by Muslims since 7th Century AD.

The Chinese are believed to have invented the first natural bristle toothbrush made from the bristles from pigs’ necks in the 15th century, with the bristles attached to a bone or bamboo handle. Although when it was brought from China to Europe, this design was adapted and often used softer horsehairs which many Europeans preferred. It is also believed that feathers were used in early Europe

Toothbrush1899Paris

The first bristle toothbrush, resembling the modern toothbrush, was found in China during the Tang Dynasty(619–907) and used hog bristle. The bristles were sourced from hogs living in Siberia and northern China because the colder temperatures provided firmer bristles. They were then attached to a handle manufactured from bamboo or bone, forming a toothbrush. The bristle toothbrush spread to Europe, brought back from China to Europe by travellers. It was adopted in Europe during the 17th century

bloodletting and bone

The first toothbrush of a more modern design was made by William Addis in England around 1780 – the handle was carved from cattle bone and the brush portion was still made from swine bristles. In 1844, the first 3-row bristle brush was designed. It was while he was in gaol for causing a riot that he decided that the method used for cleaning ones teeth was ineffective at the time it was common to just rub a rag with soot and salt over the teeth.

So he saved a small animal bone left over from the meal he had eaten the previous night, into which he drilled small holes. He then obtained some bristles from one of his guards, which he tied in tufts that he then passed through the holes in the bone, and which he finally sealed with glue. After his release, he started a business that would manufacture the toothbrushes he had built, and he soon became very rich. He died in 1808, and left the business to his eldest son, also called William, and it stayed in family ownership until 1996.

wisdom toothbrushes

Under the name Wisdom Toothbrushes the company now manufactures 70 million toothbrushes per year in the UK. By1840 toothbrushes were being mass-produced in England, France, Germany, and Japan. Pig bristle was used for cheaper toothbrushes, and badger hair for the more expensive ones.

Natural bristles were the only source of bristles until someone named Du Pont invented nylon. The invention of nylon started the development of the truly modern toothbrush in 1938, and by the 1950s softer nylon bristles were being made, as people preferred these. The first electric toothbrush was made in 1939 and the first electric toothbrush in the US was the Broxodent in 1960.

Today, both manual and electric toothbrushes come in many shapes and sizes and are typically made of plastic moulded handles and nylon bristles. The most recent toothbrush models include handles that are straight, angled, curved, and contoured with grips and soft rubber areas to make them easier to hold and use. Toothbrush bristles are usually synthetic and range from very soft to soft in texture, although harder bristle versions are available. Toothbrush heads range from very small for young children to larger sizes for older children and adults and come in a variety of shapes such as rectangular, oblong, oval and almost round.

toothbrushes

The basic fundamentals have not changed since the times of the Egyptians and Babylonians – a handle to grip, and a bristle-like feature with which to clean the teeth. Over its long history, the toothbrush has evolved to become a scientifically designed tool using modern ergonomic designs and safe and hygienic materials that benefit us all.

Monday=Flag Information Day

100px-Australian_Aboriginal_Flag.svg

This Monday I will tell you a little about the Aboriginal flag this one should be pretty well known but for those who don’t know what it looks like here it is.

Now this flag has been around since 12th July 1971, it was designed by Harold Thomas and was first flown in Adelaide on the 12th July 1971 before then there was no Australian Aboriginal Flag.

The red stripe represents the land and the black symbolises the Aboriginal people, the yellow circle represents the Sun, the giver of life.

The flag was originally designed for the land rights movement, but has since became a symbol of the Aboriginal people of Australia, is is one of the official flags of Australia.

In 1994 at the Commonwealth Games Cathy Freeman caused a stir when she carried both the Aboriginal Flag and the Australian Flag during her victory lap after winning the 200 metres sprint as only the national flag was meant to be displayed. Despite strong criticism from both Games officials and the Australian team president Cathy again carried both flags after winning the 400 metres.

In 1995 Labor Prime Minister Paul Keating decided that both the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander flags should be given national flag status despite opposition by the Liberal party. Nonetheless nothing has changed and both flags still have national flag status.

Many building in Australia fly the Aboriginal flag as well as the Australian flag, the first city council to fly the Aboriginal flag was Newcastle City Council in 1977.

Here’s to Thursday, I feel awful

thursday-falling-star

Well Thursday is here and this Thursday is going to a bit of this and a bit of that post, we will kick it off with some school dramas.

The school Leo goes to has a system that sends parent an automatic text via sms when their child is absent from school, so yesterday Jessica gets this text saying Leo was absent she rings her sister Natasha (who takes the boys to school) and asks did you take Leo to school, she says of course I did and Jessica broke down and said she had a text about Leo not being there. Natasha jumps in her car and rushes around to Jessica’s place takes about 3 minutes to get there, and they both try ringing the school but it isn’t getting through. So Natasha drives Jessica to the school who I might add is in a right state, they get there and YES Leo is AT SCHOOL there was a computer stuff up with Leo’s name. Jessica was so upset that they took her over to his class room so she could see him and give him a hug, have to add Natasha although not crying was extremely upset herself.

Drama number two concerns both boys, when I went to get Blain from school this afternoon I am sitting in the car waiting the bell rang children exit the school and no Blain this is not unusual he is often pretty much the last child out. However, at 3.15 he still wasn’t out this is 20 minutes after the bell went I go searching for him and he is off playing handball yet again. I have told him a number of times not to do that as I have to get Leo after I get him.

So we are very late to get Leo as the time we where just leaving Blain’s school is usually the time we get to Leo’s school, when we get to Leo’s school Blain says I’ll go in and get him but when he goes to enter the school the gate is locked, this caused Blain to get a little worried and I said we will have to enter via the staff car-park. Blain says you wait here nanna and I will go and runs off as fast as he could to find Leo, when he got Leo, Leo is upset as well he was worried we had forgotten about him.

I am hoping this teachers Blain a bit of a lesson as to why he has to come straight out to the car after the bell rings in the afternoon.

So this morning I had a doctors appointment about what is called a care plan this is plan they do for people with a chronic disease such as Diabetes which I have, the appointment was for 10.30am but he was running close to an hour late and then he was with me for a bloody long time.

I now have to see the podiatrist on the 3rd and exercise physiologist on the 4th of next month, have to say this new doctor is pretty good, I do like him he is very thorough and explained to me what a fatty liver is, I knew it was fat around the liver but didn’t know what if anything could be done about it. The answer is no there is nothing that can be done other then having my diabetes well controlled and losing a bit of wait.

I now have time to eat before leaving to get the boys from school, I hope Blain isn’t late getting out today. Speaking of Leo I drove him to school this morning and guess what he wouldn’t let me go and a staff member had to pry him off me yet again. I rarely take him to school because of this behaviour.

I am not going to bother reading and blog posts today, I really just don’t feel like it as I am very stuffed up in the head and taking cold tablets make me tired and oh yeah they tell you when you get cold tablets not to take paracetamol as there is some in the tablets but if you read the label you will notice that each table contains about 250mg of paracetamol when a normal paracetamol table has 500mg of paracetamol in them and you normal take 2 paracetamol tablets at a time so to me it makes sense if you take 2 cold tablets with paracetamol in them you should also take 1 paracetamol tablet. I, however, took 2 cold tablets and 2 paracetamol tablets.

History Tuesday……………..Teddy Sheean

SMN_Edward_Sheean_0

This week I think I will tell you about a fella named Teddy Sheean, Edward “Teddy” Sheean was an ordinary seaman serving on HMAS Armidale whose death during a Japanese aerial attack on his ship has become a well-known episode in Australian Second World War lore.

Teddy was born at Lower Barrington, Tasmania, on 28 December 1923. He received his education in a Catholic school at Latrobe in Tasmania and, having completed his schooling, worked on farms in the area where he grew up. He enlisted in the Royal Australian Naval Reserve in April 1941.


The vessel on which he was billeted, the former ferry Kuttabul, was sunk during the Japanese midget submarine attack on Sydney Harbour. Fortunately for Sheean he was in Tasmania on home leave that night. He returned to Sydney 11 days later to begin his service as an Oerlikon anti-aircraft gunner on the newly commissioned corvette, HMAS Armidale. Armidale spent her early months on relatively uneventful convoy escort duties along Australia’s east and northern coasts.

In October 1942 Armidale’s captain, Lieutenant Commander David Richards, was ordered to Darwin and, on 29 November, the corvette began her last operation. Along with two other vessels, she was to undertake a resupply and evacuation mission to Japanese-occupied Timor.

Having been seen by Japanese reconnaissance pilots shortly after leaving the port, Armidale was destined for a dangerous journey. She and the other corvette on the operation, HMAS Castlemaine, missed the rendezvous with the third ship, in Timor’s Betano Bay, but met her later some 100 kilometres off-shore. The plan having gone awry, Armidale was ordered to return to Betano the following night. Facing a long day in enemy waters and the certainty of attack, the crew waited.

When in the mid-afternoon she was hit by two aircraft-launched torpedoes, Armidale began to sink fast. Sheean was wounded and, rather than abandon ship, he strapped himself to his Oerlikon and began to engage the attacking aircraft even as the ship sunk beneath him. He shot down two planes, and crewmates recall seeing tracer rising from beneath the surface as Sheean was dragged under the water, firing until the end. He died on 1 December 1942 aged just 18. Only 49 of the 149 men on board survived the attack and subsequent ordeal on rafts and in life boats.

Teddy’s actions deserved the Victoria Cross, an award for which he was not recommended at the time although he was Mentioned in Dispatches.

He has subsequently been honoured in a well-known painting at the Australian War Memorial and by having a Collins Class submarine named after him in 1999 – the only vessel in the Royal Australian Navy to be named after an ordinary seaman.

Hello Monday…………..I wish it was still Sunday

Monday not

Well it is now Monday and of course the weekend flew past in rush as per usual, Monday is suppose to be a quiet day, I don’t go out or do anything much during the day.

That hasn’t been the case though, as at 8.45am this morning Natasha rings me to ask if I would take Leo to school so I had to quickly change my shoes and leave to go get him. Then when I get to Natasha’s house she asks me to take back the new shoes she bought for Blain yesterday and exchange them for a larger size.

So I take Leo to school, pay for his excursion and then head out to Glendale to exchange the shoes only to find out that Kmart at Glendale doesn’t have his size, so had them ring Kotara and ask if that store has them, they did so I have to go to Kmart at Kotara to get his shoes. The shoes he needs for tomorrows performance for his dance festival.

So since getting home I read some blogs and had lunch and now I am writing this, it is another cold day here was a bit wet here this morning and in an hour or so I will have to go and get Blain and Leo from school.

Oh yeah I am sneezing and my nose is dripping and it is driving me bloody batty. As mentioned Blain has a dance festival performance tomorrow night in town at Newcastle Panthers club I wonder why on earth they have to have these things at night in the middle of winter and a good 20-25 minutes from home.

Naturally it will be me and Tim who will be taking Blain as Natasha will be at work she would love to be able to take him but of course she can’t. So this week I am expecting to have Blain all week and Leo on Saturday night.

Well that is all from me for this post, be happy, enjoy life and if it is cold there stay warm if it’s hot stay cool.

Five things Friday

circle

Guess what, guess what, guess what……….it’s Friday yet again so on this Friday what five things do I have…………….

Photos

Camera

Keys

Letters, Bills and Misc holder

Art work (by grandchildren)

Any idea what this weeks theme is?